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  • Ben Beck

How Many Repair Attempts Does it Take Before a Vehicle is Classed as a Lemon?

A "lemon" in the automotive world refers to a vehicle that, despite multiple attempts at repair, continues to have defects or issues that significantly impair its use, safety, or value. These vehicles, while seemingly perfect on the outside or when initially purchased, often turn into ongoing sources of frustration for their owners.


For consumers, understanding lemon laws is paramount. Purchasing a car is a significant investment, often second only to buying a home. When this investment turns out to be problematic, causing undue stress, financial strain, and potential safety risks, it is essential for consumers to be aware of their rights and the legal avenues available to them. Lemon laws are designed to protect consumers from getting stuck with these defective vehicles, ensuring they have recourse to either get their vehicle replaced or refunded.


From this blog you will learn how to determine when a vehicle classed as lemon.


1. The Basics of Lemon Laws

Lemon laws are legal statutes designed to protect consumers who purchase vehicles that fail to meet standards of quality and performance.


➡️ Here are the foundational elements of lemon laws:

  • Definition of a Lemon: While specifics can vary from one jurisdiction to another, a "lemon" is generally defined as a vehicle that has significant defects or conditions that impair its use, value, or safety. These defects usually need to be nonconformities covered under the manufacturer's warranty and not caused by abuse or unauthorized modifications by the owner.

  • Reasonable Repair Attempts: Before a car is classified as a lemon, it typically must undergo a certain number of repair attempts for the same issue without a successful resolution. The definition of "reasonable attempts" can vary, but often, it takes into account the severity of the issue. For example, a life-threatening brake issue might only require one unsuccessful repair to qualify as a lemon, while less severe problems might necessitate several repair attempts.

  • Refund or Replacement: If a vehicle is deemed a lemon, the manufacturer is generally obligated to either replace the vehicle with a comparable model or refund the purchase price (often taking into account the mileage used by the buyer).

  • Lemon Law Presumptions: Some laws might include a presumption period, typically a specific time or mileage limit after purchasing the car, during which defects must appear for the car to be considered unrepaired within a reasonable number of attempts. If issues arise after this period, they might not be covered under lemon laws, although other warranties or protections might still apply.

  • Statute of Limitations: Consumers usually have a set timeframe to file a claim under lemon laws, starting from the vehicle's delivery date. This timeframe ensures both parties (consumer and manufacturer) have clarity on potential liabilities.

  • Manufacturer's Defense: While lemon laws are in place to protect consumers, they also give manufacturers the opportunity to defend themselves. For instance, if the manufacturer can prove the issue arose due to consumer negligence or unauthorized modifications, they might not be held liable.

  • Lemon Law Procedures: Many jurisdictions require consumers to notify manufacturers about the defects and give them an opportunity to repair the defect before a lawsuit can be initiated. This step ensures that manufacturers have a fair chance to address and rectify the issues.

  • Variation by Jurisdiction: It is crucial to understand that lemon laws vary widely based on location. Each state or country may have its own specific criteria and guidelines. For example, what qualifies as a lemon in California might differ from the standards in Virginia or Texas.


If your new car has a substantial defect and it becomes a safety hazard to you and others on the road, you can safely assume you have landed a lemon car.


2. The Varied Nature of State Lemon Laws

When it comes to lemon laws, it is crucial to recognize that their specifics can vary significantly from one state to another. These differences may encompass aspects like the definition of a "lemon," the number of repair attempts required, the duration of protection after purchase, and the remedies available to the consumer.


➡️ Here are some varying state lemon law examples:

  • New York's Guidelines: In New York, similar to most state lemon laws, for a car to be classified as a lemon, it must have a defect that impairs its value, use, or safety and that cannot be repaired after a reasonable number of attempts. Typically, this means four or more repair attempts for the same defect or the car being out of service for repairs for 30 or more cumulative days during the first 24 months or 18,000 miles.

  • Virginia's Stipulations: Virginia's lemon laws come into play when a new motor vehicle fails to conform to warranties and the defect significantly impairs its use, market value, or safety. Here, if the manufacturer cannot fix the issue after three attempts or if the car is out of service for 30 or more cumulative days, it might be classified as a lemon.

  • Texas's Criteria: In the Lone Star state, a vehicle might be considered a lemon if it has been taken in for repair four or more times for the same defect or two or more times for a serious safety defect within the first 24 months or 24,000 miles. Additionally, if the vehicle is out of service for repairs for a total of 30 or more days within the first 24 months or 24,000 miles, it may also qualify.

3. A Ruling that Influenced California's Lemon Laws

California, known for its stringent consumer protection laws provides an enlightening example of how legal precedents and specific cases can shape the interpretation and application of legislation.


➡️ Krieger vs. Nick Alexander Imports, Inc. - A Landmark Decision:

In 1991, a pivotal case titled “Krieger vs. Nick Alexander Imports, Inc.” was brought before the California courts. The plaintiff, Krieger, had purchased a vehicle that experienced repeated issues, and after multiple repair attempts by the dealership, the issues persisted. Krieger sought relief under the California Lemon Law, which led to a significant legal battle. The outcome of this case helped clarify and set certain standards for lemon law applications in the state of California. These are:


✅ Establishing a Minimum Repair Threshold:

  • One of the primary implications of the Krieger case was the emphasis on a minimum threshold of repair attempts. It was determined that to prevent misuse of the lemon law, there should be at least two repair attempts before a vehicle can potentially qualify as a "lemon." This standard was established to strike a balance—protecting consumers from defective products while also ensuring that manufacturers and dealerships were not unfairly targeted over minor or easily fixable issues.

✅ The Nuance of Repair Attempts:

  • While the Krieger case highlighted the importance of a minimum number of repair attempts, it also underscored that success in court isn’t guaranteed based solely on these attempts. Several factors come into play, including the nature and severity of the defect, the impact of the defect on the vehicle’s use, value, and safety, and the duration the vehicle has been out of service due to repairs. The court's decision in the Krieger case emphasized that a holistic view of the situation is necessary, and each case will have its unique characteristics.


You will learn what you need to do under state lemon law to qualify for a refund or replacement.

The 1991 Krieger case serves as an important reminder of the complexities involved in lemon law disputes. While specific guidelines like the minimum number of repair attempts provide a foundation, the interpretation of these laws requires a nuanced understanding of both the legislation and the specifics of each individual case.


4. A Glimpse at California’s Guidelines

California offers a detailed set of guidelines under its lemon laws providing consumers and practitioners with insight into how some of the more progressive lemon laws operate.


➡️ California's Song-Beverly Consumer Warranty Act:

California's lemon laws are enshrined in its Civil Code and are especially consumer-friendly. The heart of it is the Song-Beverly Consumer Warranty Act. It offers protections for consumers who purchase or lease new or used motor vehicles, and it ensures that manufacturers honor their warranties by repairing any defects within a reasonable number of attempts.


➡️ What Qualifies as a 'Lemon' in California?

In California, a vehicle is typically considered a 'lemon' if:

  • The manufacturer or its authorized dealer has made two or more attempts to repair a warranty problem that could result in death or serious injury.

  • The manufacturer or its authorized dealer has made four or more attempts to repair the same warranty problem that substantially impairs the use or value.

  • The car has been out of service for more than 30 days (not necessarily consecutively) due to warranty repairs.

➡️ Replacement or Refund:

If a vehicle is determined to be a lemon, consumers in California are entitled to either:

  • A replacement vehicle that is substantially identical.

  • A refund of the purchase price, minus a reasonable amount for the consumer's use of the vehicle.

➡️ The Presumption Period:

An important aspect of California's lemon law is the "presumption period." If the defects occur within the first 18 months or 18,000 miles, whichever comes first, the vehicle is presumed to be a unrepaired within a reasonable number of attempts. However, even if this period is exceeded, the consumer can still pursue a claim, however, the presumption advantage will not be available.


➡️ Used Vehicles and Lemon Laws:

California's lemon law differs from other states in that it also covers used vehicles, provided they are still under a manufacturer's warranty. This inclusion ensures that even consumers of used cars have some level of protection against persistent defects.


➡️ Legal Fees:

One of the most consumer-friendly aspects of California's guidelines is that if a person prevails in a lemon law claim, the manufacturer is often required to pay the person's attorney fees. This provision ensures that consumers can seek legal redress without the fear of prohibitive costs.



Determining whether you qualify under lemon law depends on number of repair attemps, number of miles used and the nature of defects.

In conclusion, California's state consumer protection laws are among the most robust in the nation. By understanding these provisions, consumers can be more informed about their rights and manufacturers can better understand their obligations. It sets a high standard for consumer protection, and many other states look to California as a benchmark when crafting their own lemon laws.


5. The Myth of a Set "Repair Attempt" Limit

One of the most widely misunderstood facets of lemon laws across different states is the notion that there's a universal "repair attempt" number after which a vehicle can definitively be classified as a lemon. This misconception can lead to a range of missed opportunities for consumers seeking justice.

  • The Variability of Repair Attempts: The truth is that the number of repair attempts that qualify a vehicle as a lemon varies not only by state but sometimes by the nature of the defect itself. Some states might require only two repair attempts for a substantial defect that is life-threatening, while others might demand four or more attempts for less severe issues.

  • The Nature of the Defect Matters: It is essential to recognize that not all defects are created equal in the eyes of the law. A critical safety hazard, such as a malfunctioning brake system, might be treated with more urgency than an air conditioning issue. In such cases, states might demand fewer repair attempts before qualifying the vehicle as a lemon.

  • Cumulative Days Out of Service: It is not just the number of repair attempts that matter. Many state lemon laws also take into account the cumulative days a vehicle spends out of service due to repair attempts. If a car spends an excessive amount of time in the repair shop — even if it's for a variety of different issues — it might still qualify as a lemon.

  • The Importance of Documentation: Given the variability in repair attempt requirements, it is crucial for consumers to meticulously document every repair effort, the nature of the defect, the duration the vehicle was in the repair shop, and the outcome of each attempt. This documentation becomes invaluable when presenting a case, either to the manufacturer or in a court of law.

  • The Flexibility in "Reasonable Attempts": The term "reasonable attempts" is used in many lemon laws, but its interpretation can be subjective. It doesn’t always boil down to a strict number. For example, if a vehicle has a recurring defect that the dealership has tried to repair multiple times, even if it's one attempt short of the state's specified number, the case might still be argued based on the "reasonableness" of the situation.


Several lemon laws have been instituted to protect customers from deceptive warranty practices.

In conclusion, the myth of a set "repair attempt" limit can be misleading for consumers. Instead of focusing solely on a specific number, consumers should understand the broader picture of what constitutes a "reasonable attempt" in their specific state and the nature of their vehicle's defects. Being well-informed and maintaining thorough documentation can empower consumers to better navigate the intricacies of lemon laws and seek the remedies they deserve.


6. Common Lemon Defects in California

California is one of the states with robust lemon laws, designed to protect consumers from being stuck with persistently malfunctioning new vehicles. But what are some of the common defects that might deem a vehicle a "lemon" in California?

  • Engine Issues: One of the most prominent defects that can turn a vehicle into a lemon is engine problems. This can range from total engine failure to persistent overheating or inexplicable stalling.

  • Transmission Failures: Transmission problems can severely impact a car's functionality. Issues might include abrupt jerking, difficulty changing gears, or total transmission failure, leaving the vehicle immobile.

  • Faulty Braking Systems: Brakes are crucial for safety. If they are consistently malfunctioning, not only is the vehicle potentially a lemon, but it is also a hazard on the road.

  • Electrical System Malfunctions: From flickering lights to malfunctioning infotainment systems, persistent electrical issues can render a car unreliable and significantly decrease its value.

  • Steering Problems: Difficulty in steering, unexpected locking of the steering wheel, or issues with power steering can be indicators of a lemon.

  • Repeated Battery Failures: If a new vehicle consistently faces battery issues, even after replacements, it might be a candidate for lemon status.

  • Issues with the Air Conditioning or Heating System: While these might seem minor in comparison to engine or transmission problems, a persistent inability to regulate a car's temperature can impact its usability and value.

  • Defective Airbags or Seatbelts: Safety features are non-negotiable. If these are not functioning correctly, the vehicle isn't just a potential lemon; it is a danger to its occupants.

  • Persistent Leaks: Whether this is oil, transmission fluid, or coolant, repeated leaks can indicate deeper systemic issues with a vehicle.

  • Excessive Noise or Vibration: If a car is consistently making unusual noises or exhibiting odd vibrations, especially when it is not attributed to typical wear and tear, it could be a sign of underlying issues.


7. What If the Vehicle is Still Not Repaired?

If a new vehicle in California displays one or several of these defects that the dealer cannot repair after a reasonable number of attempts (a minimum of two in California), it might be eligible for a refund or a replacement under California's lemon laws. Understanding the next steps in such situations is essential to safeguarding your consumer rights.

Here's what you should do if your vehicle remains unrepaired after the designated number of attempts:

  1. Consult a Lemon Law Attorney: The very first step should be to consult a lemon law attorney. They specialize in this area of the law and can provide guidance tailored to your specific situation and state's regulations. - Expert Analysis: Lemon lawyers have dealt with numerous cases similar to yours and can quickly determine whether you have a valid claim. - Navigating Complexities: Lemon laws can be intricate, with various nuances depending on your state. An attorney can help you navigate these complexities with ease.

  2. Identify Common Defects: Before initiating any legal actions, ensure you clearly identify and document the defects in your vehicle. Familiarize yourself with common defects that often result in lemon statuses, such as persistent engine issues, transmission failures, and brake malfunctions.

  3. Keep Thorough Records: Documentation is crucial. Keep all service records, repair receipts, and any correspondence related to your vehicle's issues. - Dates and Details: Be specific. Note down the dates of each repair attempt, the nature of the problem, and the actions taken by the dealership or repair shop. - Communicate in Writing: Whenever possible, communicate your concerns in writing (emails, letters) to create a paper trail.

  4. Provide the Manufacturer with a Final Opportunity to Repair: In many jurisdictions, before filing a lawsuit, you must provide the manufacturer with a final chance to fix the issue. This can be an essential step in showing the court you have given the manufacturer ample opportunity.

  5. Initiate the Lawsuit: If all else fails and you are confident you have a lemon: - Filing: Your attorney will help you file a lawsuit against the manufacturer, ensuring all paperwork is completed accurately and timely. - Evidence Presentation: In court, you will need to present evidence, which is where your thorough documentation comes into play. - Negotiations: Many lemon law cases are settled outside of court. Be prepared for negotiations, and lean on your attorney's expertise to ensure you get a fair deal.

  6. Stay Persistent: Remember that success isn't guaranteed, but with the right evidence, legal counsel, and persistence, you can maximize your chances of a favorable outcome.


8. Choose The Beck Law Office for Lemon Law Representation

Navigating the complexities of lemon laws can be a daunting prospect. From understanding your rights to taking action against manufacturers, the process requires expertise and precision. This is where The Beck Law Office can help you, offering unparalleled representation in lemon law cases in California.

  • Experience: With a long history of handling lemon law cases in the state of California, all our experienced attorneys at The Beck Law Office bring a wealth of knowledge and expertise to the table. We stay abreast of the latest legal changes, ensuring that our clients get the most current and accurate representation.

  • Client-Centric Approach: We understand the frustration that comes with owning a lemon, therefore, we prioritize client needs, ensuring that every case is handled with utmost care and attention to detail.

  • Comprehensive Services: Whether it's gathering evidence, representing clients in arbitration, or litigating in court, we provide a comprehensive suite of services tailored to meet individual client needs.

  • No Win, No Fee Policy: We believe in our ability to deliver results. And so, if we don't win your case, you don't pay a cent. This guarantees our commitment and assures our clients that their case is in the best hands in the business.


Contact Us Today!

Don't let your lemon ruin your life. Call us today and let our team of dedicated professionals guide you through the intricate maze of lemon laws. Whether you need advice, representation, or just answers to your queries, we are here to assist you. Take advantage of our free initial consultation and let's pave the way for a lemon-free future!

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